Elasticsearch Exporter

Elasticsearch 是一个实时的分布式存储、搜索、分析的引擎,官网是 https://www.elastic.co/cn/elasticsearch/ 。 很多公司在用这个,你的公司大概率也有,那么对于 Elasticsearch 该怎么监控呢?针对这个问题,Prometheus Community 开发了一个 Elasticsearch Exporter ,用来导出 Elasticsearch 的监控数据,仓库地址是 https://github.com/prometheus-community/elasticsearch_exporter ,用 Golang 编写。

Elasticsearch Exporter 当前版本是 1.3.0 ,发布于 2021.10.21


安装是比较简单的,下载最新版本的二进制包,或者下载 Docker image 。启动 Docker image 可以使用

docker run --rm -p 9114:9114 quay.io/prometheuscommunity/elasticsearch-exporter:latest --es.uri=http://localhost:9200

在 Kubernetes 里使用 helm 部署可以参考 https://github.com/kubernetes/charts/tree/master/stable/elasticsearch-exporter

每次从这个 Exporter 获取 Elasticsearch 的监控数据都会从 Elasticsearch 服务拉取一次,如果获取时间间隔太短的话,可能会增大服务端的压力,尤其是使用 --es.all--es.indices 运行 Exporter 的时候。所以在实际使用过程中,建议大家在确定获取数据间隔的时候,先测量获取 /_nodes/stats/_all/_stats 指标的时间,防止监控对服务造成影响。

Elasticsearch Exporter 启动的时候有如下启动参数可以选择。

参数 出现的版本 描述 缺省值

es.uri |1.0.2 |Address (host and port) of the Elasticsearch node we should connect to. This could be a local node (localhost:9200, for instance), or the address of a remote Elasticsearch server. When basic auth is needed, specify as: ://:<password>@:. E.G., http://admin:pass@localhost:9200. Special characters in the user credentials need to be URL-encoded. |http://localhost:9200 es.all |1.0.2 |If true, query stats for all nodes in the cluster, rather than just the node we connect to. |false es.cluster_settings |1.1.0rc1 |If true, query stats for cluster settings. |false es.indices |1.0.2 |If true, query stats for all indices in the cluster. |false es.indices_settings |1.0.4rc1 |If true, query settings stats for all indices in the cluster. |false es.indices_mappings |1.2.0 |If true, query stats for mappings of all indices of the cluster. |false es.shards |1.0.3rc1 |If true, query stats for all indices in the cluster, including shard-level stats (implies es.indices=true). |false es.snapshots |1.0.4rc1 |If true, query stats for the cluster snapshots. |false es.timeout |1.0.2 |Timeout for trying to get stats from Elasticsearch. (ex: 20s) |5s es.ca |1.0.2 |Path to PEM file that contains trusted Certificate Authorities for the Elasticsearch connection.
es.client-private-key |1.0.2 |Path to PEM file that contains the private key for client auth when connecting to Elasticsearch.
es.client-cert |1.0.2 |Path to PEM file that contains the corresponding cert for the private key to connect to Elasticsearch.
es.clusterinfo.interval |1.1.0rc1 |Cluster info update interval for the cluster label |5m es.ssl-skip-verify |1.0.4rc1 |Skip SSL verification when connecting to Elasticsearch. |false es.apiKey |unreleased |API Key to use for authenticating against Elasticsearch.
web.listen-address |1.0.2 |Address to listen on for web interface and telemetry. |:9114 web.telemetry-path |1.0.2 |Path under which to expose metrics. |/metrics version |1.0.2 |Show version info on stdout and exit.

命令行参数以单个参数开始,用于版本低于 1.1.0rc1 。对于大于 1.1.0rc1 的版本,命令行参数用 -- 指定。此外,所有命令行参数都可以作为环境变量提供。

对于 Elasticsearch 7.x 版本提供了一些安全性的措施,用户名和密码可以直接在 URI 中传递,也可以通过ES_USERNAMEES_PASSWORD环境变量传递。如果在 URI 中传递了身份验证,那么指定这两个环境变量以后将覆盖URI 里的内容。

Elasticsearch 7.x 支持 RBAC,这些参数可以在 Elasticsearch Exporter 里使用。

Setting |Privilege Required |Description | --- | --- | --- | exporter defaults |cluster monitor |All cluster read-only operations, like cluster health and state, hot threads, node info, node and cluster stats, and pending cluster tasks. es.cluster_settings |cluster monitor
es.indices |indices monitor (per index or ) |All actions that are required for monitoring (recovery, segments info, index stats and status) es.indices_settings |indices monitor (per index or )
es.shards |not sure if indices or cluster monitor or both
es.snapshots |cluster:admin/snapshot/status and cluster:admin/repository/get |ES Forum Post


Elasticsearch Exporter 可以导出很多指标,如下所示:

指标 类型 基数 帮助信息
elasticsearch_breakers_estimated_size_bytes gauge 4 Estimated size in bytes of breaker
elasticsearch_breakers_limit_size_bytes gauge 4 Limit size in bytes for breaker
elasticsearch_breakers_tripped counter 4 tripped for breaker
elasticsearch_cluster_health_active_primary_shards gauge 1 The number of primary shards in your cluster. This is an aggregate total across all indices.
elasticsearch_cluster_health_active_shards gauge 1 Aggregate total of all shards across all indices, which includes replica shards.
elasticsearch_cluster_health_delayed_unassigned_shards gauge 1 Shards delayed to reduce reallocation overhead
elasticsearch_cluster_health_initializing_shards gauge 1 Count of shards that are being freshly created.
elasticsearch_cluster_health_number_of_data_nodes gauge 1 Number of data nodes in the cluster.
elasticsearch_cluster_health_number_of_in_flight_fetch gauge 1 The number of ongoing shard info requests.
elasticsearch_cluster_health_number_of_nodes gauge 1 Number of nodes in the cluster.
elasticsearch_cluster_health_number_of_pending_tasks gauge 1 Cluster level changes which have not yet been executed
elasticsearch_cluster_health_task_max_waiting_in_queue_millis gauge 1 Max time in millis that a task is waiting in queue.
elasticsearch_cluster_health_relocating_shards gauge 1 The number of shards that are currently moving from one node to another node.
elasticsearch_cluster_health_status gauge 3 Whether all primary and replica shards are allocated.
elasticsearch_cluster_health_timed_out gauge 1 Number of cluster health checks timed out
elasticsearch_cluster_health_unassigned_shards gauge 1 The number of shards that exist in the cluster state, but cannot be found in the cluster itself.
elasticsearch_clustersettings_stats_max_shards_per_node gauge 0 Current maximum number of shards per node setting.
elasticsearch_filesystem_data_available_bytes gauge 1 Available space on block device in bytes
elasticsearch_filesystem_data_free_bytes gauge 1 Free space on block device in bytes
elasticsearch_filesystem_data_size_bytes gauge 1 Size of block device in bytes
elasticsearch_filesystem_io_stats_device_operations_count gauge 1 Count of disk operations
elasticsearch_filesystem_io_stats_device_read_operations_count gauge 1 Count of disk read operations
elasticsearch_filesystem_io_stats_device_write_operations_count gauge 1 Count of disk write operations
elasticsearch_filesystem_io_stats_device_read_size_kilobytes_sum gauge 1 Total kilobytes read from disk
elasticsearch_filesystem_io_stats_device_write_size_kilobytes_sum gauge 1 Total kilobytes written to disk
elasticsearch_indices_active_queries gauge 1 The number of currently active queries
elasticsearch_indices_docs gauge 1 Count of documents on this node
elasticsearch_indices_docs_deleted gauge 1 Count of deleted documents on this node
elasticsearch_indices_docs_primary gauge Count of documents with only primary shards on all nodes
elasticsearch_indices_fielddata_evictions counter 1 Evictions from field data
elasticsearch_indices_fielddata_memory_size_bytes gauge 1 Field data cache memory usage in bytes
elasticsearch_indices_filter_cache_evictions counter 1 Evictions from filter cache
elasticsearch_indices_filter_cache_memory_size_bytes gauge 1 Filter cache memory usage in bytes
elasticsearch_indices_flush_time_seconds counter 1 Cumulative flush time in seconds
elasticsearch_indices_flush_total counter 1 Total flushes
elasticsearch_indices_get_exists_time_seconds counter 1 Total time get exists in seconds
elasticsearch_indices_get_exists_total counter 1 Total get exists operations
elasticsearch_indices_get_missing_time_seconds counter 1 Total time of get missing in seconds
elasticsearch_indices_get_missing_total counter 1 Total get missing
elasticsearch_indices_get_time_seconds counter 1 Total get time in seconds
elasticsearch_indices_get_total counter 1 Total get
elasticsearch_indices_indexing_delete_time_seconds_total counter 1 Total time indexing delete in seconds
elasticsearch_indices_indexing_delete_total counter 1 Total indexing deletes
elasticsearch_indices_index_current gauge 1 The number of documents currently being indexed to an index
elasticsearch_indices_indexing_index_time_seconds_total counter 1 Cumulative index time in seconds
elasticsearch_indices_indexing_index_total counter 1 Total index calls
elasticsearch_indices_mappings_stats_fields gauge 1 Count of fields currently mapped by index
elasticsearch_indices_mappings_stats_json_parse_failures_total counter 0 Number of errors while parsing JSON
elasticsearch_indices_mappings_stats_scrapes_total counter 0 Current total ElasticSearch Indices Mappings scrapes
elasticsearch_indices_mappings_stats_up gauge 0 Was the last scrape of the ElasticSearch Indices Mappings endpoint successful
elasticsearch_indices_merges_docs_total counter 1 Cumulative docs merged
elasticsearch_indices_merges_total counter 1 Total merges
elasticsearch_indices_merges_total_size_bytes_total counter 1 Total merge size in bytes
elasticsearch_indices_merges_total_time_seconds_total counter 1 Total time spent merging in seconds
elasticsearch_indices_query_cache_cache_total counter 1 Count of query cache
elasticsearch_indices_query_cache_cache_size gauge 1 Size of query cache
elasticsearch_indices_query_cache_count counter 2 Count of query cache hit/miss
elasticsearch_indices_query_cache_evictions counter 1 Evictions from query cache
elasticsearch_indices_query_cache_memory_size_bytes gauge 1 Query cache memory usage in bytes
elasticsearch_indices_query_cache_total counter 1 Size of query cache total
elasticsearch_indices_refresh_time_seconds_total counter 1 Total time spent refreshing in seconds
elasticsearch_indices_refresh_total counter 1 Total refreshes
elasticsearch_indices_request_cache_count counter 2 Count of request cache hit/miss
elasticsearch_indices_request_cache_evictions counter 1 Evictions from request cache
elasticsearch_indices_request_cache_memory_size_bytes gauge 1 Request cache memory usage in bytes
elasticsearch_indices_search_fetch_time_seconds counter 1 Total search fetch time in seconds
elasticsearch_indices_search_fetch_total counter 1 Total number of fetches
elasticsearch_indices_search_query_time_seconds counter 1 Total search query time in seconds
elasticsearch_indices_search_query_total counter 1 Total number of queries
elasticsearch_indices_segments_count gauge 1 Count of index segments on this node
elasticsearch_indices_segments_memory_bytes gauge 1 Current memory size of segments in bytes
elasticsearch_indices_settings_stats_read_only_indices gauge 1 Count of indices that have read_only_allow_delete=true
elasticsearch_indices_settings_total_fields gauge Index setting value for index.mapping.total_fields.limit (total allowable mapped fields in a index)
elasticsearch_indices_shards_docs gauge 3 Count of documents on this shard
elasticsearch_indices_shards_docs_deleted gauge 3 Count of deleted documents on each shard
elasticsearch_indices_store_size_bytes gauge 1 Current size of stored index data in bytes
elasticsearch_indices_store_size_bytes_primary gauge Current size of stored index data in bytes with only primary shards on all nodes
elasticsearch_indices_store_size_bytes_total gauge Current size of stored index data in bytes with all shards on all nodes
elasticsearch_indices_store_throttle_time_seconds_total counter 1 Throttle time for index store in seconds
elasticsearch_indices_translog_operations counter 1 Total translog operations
elasticsearch_indices_translog_size_in_bytes counter 1 Total translog size in bytes
elasticsearch_indices_warmer_time_seconds_total counter 1 Total warmer time in seconds
elasticsearch_indices_warmer_total counter 1 Total warmer count
elasticsearch_jvm_gc_collection_seconds_count counter 2 Count of JVM GC runs
elasticsearch_jvm_gc_collection_seconds_sum counter 2 GC run time in seconds
elasticsearch_jvm_memory_committed_bytes gauge 2 JVM memory currently committed by area
elasticsearch_jvm_memory_max_bytes gauge 1 JVM memory max
elasticsearch_jvm_memory_used_bytes gauge 2 JVM memory currently used by area
elasticsearch_jvm_memory_pool_used_bytes gauge 3 JVM memory currently used by pool
elasticsearch_jvm_memory_pool_max_bytes counter 3 JVM memory max by pool
elasticsearch_jvm_memory_pool_peak_used_bytes counter 3 JVM memory peak used by pool
elasticsearch_jvm_memory_pool_peak_max_bytes counter 3 JVM memory peak max by pool
elasticsearch_os_cpu_percent gauge 1 Percent CPU used by the OS
elasticsearch_os_load1 gauge 1 Shortterm load average
elasticsearch_os_load5 gauge 1 Midterm load average
elasticsearch_os_load15 gauge 1 Longterm load average
elasticsearch_process_cpu_percent gauge 1 Percent CPU used by process
elasticsearch_process_cpu_time_seconds_sum counter 3 Process CPU time in seconds
elasticsearch_process_mem_resident_size_bytes gauge 1 Resident memory in use by process in bytes
elasticsearch_process_mem_share_size_bytes gauge 1 Shared memory in use by process in bytes
elasticsearch_process_mem_virtual_size_bytes gauge 1 Total virtual memory used in bytes
elasticsearch_process_open_files_count gauge 1 Open file descriptors
elasticsearch_snapshot_stats_number_of_snapshots gauge 1 Total number of snapshots
elasticsearch_snapshot_stats_oldest_snapshot_timestamp gauge 1 Oldest snapshot timestamp
elasticsearch_snapshot_stats_snapshot_start_time_timestamp gauge 1 Last snapshot start timestamp
elasticsearch_snapshot_stats_latest_snapshot_timestamp_seconds gauge 1 Timestamp of the latest SUCCESS or PARTIAL snapshot
elasticsearch_snapshot_stats_snapshot_end_time_timestamp gauge 1 Last snapshot end timestamp
elasticsearch_snapshot_stats_snapshot_number_of_failures gauge 1 Last snapshot number of failures
elasticsearch_snapshot_stats_snapshot_number_of_indices gauge 1 Last snapshot number of indices
elasticsearch_snapshot_stats_snapshot_failed_shards gauge 1 Last snapshot failed shards
elasticsearch_snapshot_stats_snapshot_successful_shards gauge 1 Last snapshot successful shards
elasticsearch_snapshot_stats_snapshot_total_shards gauge 1 Last snapshot total shard
elasticsearch_thread_pool_active_count gauge 14 Thread Pool threads active
elasticsearch_thread_pool_completed_count counter 14 Thread Pool operations completed
elasticsearch_thread_pool_largest_count gauge 14 Thread Pool largest threads count
elasticsearch_thread_pool_queue_count gauge 14 Thread Pool operations queued
elasticsearch_thread_pool_rejected_count counter 14 Thread Pool operations rejected
elasticsearch_thread_pool_threads_count gauge 14 Thread Pool current threads count
elasticsearch_transport_rx_packets_total counter 1 Count of packets received
elasticsearch_transport_rx_size_bytes_total counter 1 Total number of bytes received
elasticsearch_transport_tx_packets_total counter 1 Count of packets sent
elasticsearch_transport_tx_size_bytes_total counter 1 Total number of bytes sent
elasticsearch_clusterinfo_last_retrieval_success_ts gauge 1 Timestamp of the last successful cluster info retrieval
elasticsearch_clusterinfo_up gauge 1 Up metric for the cluster info collector
elasticsearch_clusterinfo_version_info gauge 6 Constant metric with ES version information as labels

Elasticsearch Exporter 提供了一些告警规则 alerts and recording rules 在这里有一个 Grafana 的 Dashboard 模板 和 Kubernetes 里的部署 Deployment 的 yaml 文件。

这个示例的 Grafana Dashboard 需要安装 node_exporter

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